Remembering Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, the great educationist and secular nationalist
Born on October 17th, 1817 Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, founder of the Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) was not just an ordinary educationist, historian, author and jurist but an extra-ordinary reformer, secular nationalist and one of the most important architects of modern India. Sir Syed was a prolific writer who wrote on varied subjects ranging from monuments in Delhi to a commentary on the Holy Bible. It was the true nationalist in Sir Syed, who in 1859 had the courage of conviction to publish one of his most famous works Asbab-e-Baghawat-e-Hind (The Causes of the Indian Revolt) in which he exposed the aggressive expansionist policies of the British East India Company and their lack of understanding about Indian culture as the primary causes of the 1857 revolt.
A progressive leader, Sir Syed opposed superstitions and evil customs. He stressed on not just Indian Muslims but all Indians attaining education and scientific knowledge to ensure their progress and advocated modernism and pragmatism. "Get rid of old and useless rituals. These rituals hinder human progress" was his roaring message. And he followed that message up with concrete action, these were not empty words. In 1862, in Ghazipur, Sir Syed formed a society which used to translate the scientific works of English and other European languages into Urdu and Hindi and this was later christened as the Scientific Society of Aligarh.
The society sought to promote liberal, modern education and scientific knowledge in India. His close aide Jai Kishan Das was its secretary from till 1874. Many of the essays he wrote during this time were on topics like the solar system, plant and animal life, human evolution, etc. In many ways Sir Syed tried to bridge the gap between religion and science. "Religion is the word of God and our surroundings are the work of God. An explanation of the existence of work of God is science. Hence, no contradiction is possible between science and religion as the word of God cannot be in opposition of work of God" he rationalized.
While championing modern value systems Sir Syed never showed any remorse for our own composite cultural heritage. He celebrated and nurtured it more than anybody else who claims to be the "thekedar" of Indian culture or even Islam. His scholarly works in Urdu, which he regarded as the language of both Hindus and Muslims, contrary to the propaganda on the internet that says he regarded it as the "lingua franca" of Muslims, is a standing testimony to this claim.
Unfortunately, some vested interests and biased authors have viewed him through a communal lens and have tried to paint him as a "Muslim only" figure. The reality is very different. No less than our first PM, Jawaharlal Nehru said this about the great soul " Sir Syed was an ardent reformer and he wanted to reconcile modern scientific thought with religion by rationalistic interpretations and not by attacking basic belief. He was anxious to push new education. He was in no way communally separatist. Repeatedly he emphasized that religious differences should have no political and national significance. " And let me quote to you Sir Syed's most famous analysis of Hindu-Muslim relations in India.
"We (Hindus and Muslims) eat the same crop, drink water from the same rivers and breath the same air. As a matter of fact Hindus and Muslims are the two eyes of the beautiful bride that is Hindustan. Weakness of any one of them will spoil the beauty of the bride (dulhan)". Those right wing intellectuals, who selectively read his works and conveniently label him as the propounder of the "Two Nation Theory", while ignoring the far more radical views on "Two Nation Theory" by likes of Savarkar and other ideologues, have clearly missed Sir Syed's most definitive assertion on this matter - "Remember that the words Hindu and Muslim are only meant for religious distinction: otherwise all persons who reside in this country belong to one and the same nation."
The irony is that some orthodox Muslims opposed him for his progressive, liberal and nationalistic views and labeled him a Kafir on one hand and on the other hand right wing ideologues boxed him into the category of a "Muslim only figure" which he wasn't. He was far more than that. As the Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi rightly pointed out Sir Syed was "a Prophet of education." Much like the Mahatma, he showed courage to stand up to fanatics on being attacked by them. Notwithstanding the attacks by conservatives he brought out the journal 'Tehzibul Akhlaq' (Social Reform) to encourage the spread and acquisition of modern education.
Sir Syed's most ardent and notable contribution was in the field of education. After his visit to England in 1869-70, the visionary Sir Syed conceptualized great institutions for education in India. In just five years, he founded a school in Aligarh and from 1876 onwards he dedicated himself to pattern the Mohammedan Anglo Oriental (MAO) College, established by him, on the lines of Oxford and Cambridge universities. This subsequently developed into Aligarh Muslim University in 1920. And before you hypocritically object to the presence of "Muslim" or "Mohammedan" without batting an eye lid over Benaras "Hindu" University (BHU), let this fact be taken on record.
The most important first contributions to Sir Syed for the construction of building came from Hindus like Choudhary Sher Singh, Kunwar Lekhraj Singh, Raja Shiv Narain Singh, Raja Ghanshyam Singh, Raja Uday Pratap Singh, Lala Phul Chand, Lala Vasudeo Sahai and others and their names continue to adorn the old Buildings of AMU. And what better tribute could have been paid to Sir Syed's idea of Hindu-Muslim unity and the idea of a cosmopolitan, modern India he championed than this- the first student to pass out of MAO college (AMU) was Mr. Ishwari Prasad was not a Muslim but a Hindu. AMU produced a number of personalities who went on to play an instrumental role in India's freedom struggle. Mahatma Gandhi visited AMU in 1920 and was made the first Honorary Life Member of the Students' Union.